Poverty in urban suburbs
Muñaba is a suburb of Beira, the second city in Mozambique. The women in Mozambique have a high fertility rate (5.3 children per woman) and many return every year to their rural settlements to get food of their own harvesting so they can feed their large families in the hardship of urban poverty. The picture of the women doing the washing outdoors reproduces identical situations in the Spain of 80 years ago.
Only 32% of the population in Mozambique (28 million inhabitants) is urban, but this is increasing very rapidly, both due to its own population dynamic (the population has doubled between 1990 and 2016), and also the growing rural migration. The accompanying acculturation of migratory processes deprives them of their main weapon against adversity which is based on their traditional solidary social relationships.