Continuous rural depopulation
Spain, with an urban population of 80 %, finished its first demographic, economic, nutritional and epidemiological transition in the last decades of the 20th. Over the last 15 years the gender inequality indicators have improved greatly, as is shown by the low score on the Gender Inequality Index, 0.081, and the high score on the Gender Development Index, 0.974.
The indicators for the three GDI dimensions are excellent in terms of reproductive health (5 maternal deaths per 100,000 births, and 8 adolescent mothers per 1,000 women aged 15-19), good for empowerment (30.1% women members of parliament, and at least 71% of women and 77% of men completed secondary education) and improvable for workforce participation (52.3% of women and 64.8% men).
Rural settlements face a severe problem in the future, especially small villages with an old population and no school.